The issue of environmental pollution has become a global issue. Environmental pollution includes water and soil pollution, to noise and light pollution, we can't just ignore it.
The reason is, all this environmental pollution is created as a result of human activities and population growth. Such as agricultural activities, industrial activities, and so on.
What is environmental pollution?
Pollution or pollution is anything that occurs due to the entry of substances or energy that causes harmful changes to the environment and living things.
Actually, environmental pollution is not only caused by chemicals such as smoke or dust. However, forms of heat, light, and sound energy can also cause pollution. These substances are called pollutants.
Various causes and effects of environmental pollution
In practice, there are several causes and impacts of environmental pollution that we can encounter. Among them:
1. Air pollution
Air pollution or air pollution is an air condition that has been contaminated with substances that are harmful to health. Such as chemicals, toxic gases, biological molecules, and others into the earth's atmosphere.
These harmful substances are quite harmful, and can even cause serious illness.
Causes of air pollution:
- Burning fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, vehicle fumes, etc.
- Mining operations.
- Exhaust gases from industry and factory fumes.
Impact of air pollution:
The impact of air pollution varies, depending on the type of pollutant. However, in general the effects of air pollution are:
- The emergence of the risk of respiratory and heart disease.
- Increased risk of skin diseases.
- Global warming.
- Acid rain.
- The depletion of the ozone layer.
- Threat of extinction of wildlife.
Global warming is said to be one of the biggest impacts of air pollution. Although only a prediction, this is a phenomenon that has occurred on Venus.
2. Water pollution
Furthermore, water pollution often occurs due to toxic pollutants or contaminant particles that enter our water sources. Like rivers, lakes and oceans. These contaminants generally come from improper sewage treatment or oil spills.
Causes of water pollution, including:
- Disposal of solid waste in rivers, springs, lakes, and oceans.
- Dispose of untreated industrial waste into rivers or water sources.
- Human and animal waste.
- Residual agricultural waste containing pesticides and fertilizers.
Impact of water pollution:
- Disturbance of aquatic animal ecosystems.
- Threats to marine and marine life.
- Increased risk of waterborne diseases.
- Increases toxic chemicals (such as mercury) in water sources.
- Eutrophication (the presence of excess nutrients in water sources).
As we know, water is the source of life. If the water is polluted, various diseases will appear and endanger health. For example, in 1932, cases of mercury contamination of water crippled Japanese residents with neurological and mental illnesses for decades.
Mercury from factories is simply dumped into the sea, contaminating fish. Furthermore, fish is consumed by humans which has an impact on nervous health.
3. Soil pollution
Next, environmental pollution that affects the soil. Soil pollution due to the presence of chemicals or harmful substances in the soil. It can drastically affect life directly or indirectly.
For example, toxic chemicals in the soil will be absorbed by plants. Then, this plant is consumed by humans or animals.
The causes of soil pollution are:
- Disposal of industrial waste that is not treated properly.
- Oil spill into the sea.
- Acid rain caused by air pollution.
- Mining activities.
- Intensive agriculture and agricultural chemicals (such as fertilizers and pesticides).
- Industrial accidents.
The impacts of soil pollution are:
- Loss of soil nutrients, which makes the soil unfit for cultivation.
- Affects the natural flora and fauna in the soil.
- Reducing vegetation due to increased salinity/soil levels.
In addition, soil pollution can have an impact for years. For example, the Chernobyl case in 1986 due to nuclear radioactive waste. Resulting in an area of 2,600 km2 uninhabitable until now. It is said that, at least 3,000 years from now, the new area can be inhabited by living things.
4. Noise pollution
Noise pollution or noise pollution is caused by an excessive amount of noise in the vicinity so that it disturbs the balance of nature. In general, noise pollution occurs due to human activities, natural disasters, volcanoes, and others.
In general, any sound that exceeds 85 decibels is considered a nuisance to health atan. For example, the sound of a jet plane taking off, which reaches 150 decibels, will be very noisy and disturbing hearing.
The causes of noise pollution are:
- Noise due to industrial activities such as heavy machinery, factories, factories, etc.
- Transportation noise from vehicles, airplanes, etc.
- Sounds of building construction.
- Noise from social events (speakers, firecrackers, etc.)
- Household noise (such as mixer, TV, washing machine, etc.)
The effects of noise pollution are:
Noise pollution can cause adverse effects such as:
- Hearing disorders.
- Tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
- Sleep disturbances.
- Hypertension (high blood pressure).
- Communication problems.
Noise is considered as environmental pollution due to household sources, transportation activities, industrial activities, and others.
A simple way to deal with environmental pollution starts with yourself
Environmental pollution must be addressed immediately because it destroys the balance of nature and the preservation of planet earth.
We can take simple steps starting from ourselves, from family, and from the environment where we live first. It is everyone's responsibility to protect the environment.
Although it is not an easy matter, the responsibility to protect the environment requires the cooperation of various parties. Do not let environmental pollution be ignored, because it will make human life threatened with extinction.
Here are some simple tips to deal with environmental pollution from yourself:
- Reducing waste or plastic waste in daily life.
- Implement a waste recycling policy.
- Prohibit the use of hazardous chemicals for agriculture.
- Develop alternative energy or renewable energy that is safe.
Let's make the air we breathe and the earth a habitable place to live for everyone, starting with ourself!