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The 10 Sustainable Farming Methods Everyone Need to Know

Hyundai Motorstudio Senayan Park 2022.05.20
The 10 Sustainable Farming Methods Everyone Need to Know
Conventional systems or traditional agriculture in everyday life, especially in rural areas, are still widely used. However, conventionally the concept is only on how to increase production as much as possible without agricultural impacts on the subsequent impact of agriculture on ecology. Here everyone needs to know about methods of farming.

However, at this time the application of agricultural systems began to develop from conventional systems, to modern agriculture to sustainable agriculture. In the modern world, it is not only racing against the rapid development of technology, but also how to apply environmentally friendly agriculture.

Sustainable Agriculture Methods of Farming

Sustainable agriculture is how it affects the environment in the long term, increasing production yields, influencing socio-cultural and business development in the agricultural sector. According to experts, the notion of sustainability is as follows:

According to FAO (1989), the notion of sustainable agriculture is a method of environmental management and is oriented towards technological and institutional development that is carried out with the aim of ensuring the fulfillment and satisfaction of human needs in a sustainable manner for present and future generations.

According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2002), the definition of sustainability is how to fulfill the current needs of human life without compromising the ability to meet the needs of future generations.

Examples of Implementation of Sustainable Agriculture Systems

In addition to understanding, there are several examples of applications in sustainable agricultural systems both in Indonesia and the world, including the following:

1. Biological pest control

Control of various types of plants and diseases is one of the important things to pay attention to in agricultural production. In recent years, pest and disease control is still applying pesticides in pest control, especially in conventional agriculture.

However, for now agriculture is starting to develop more environmentally friendly and sustainable technologies namely biological control. This method can be done by utilizing natural work systems such as natural enemies, traps or traps, as well as antagonists in reducing pest attacks.

Natural enemies act as predators or predators of pests to suppress the population. The purpose of the use of natural enemies is to suppress the population so that the food chain remains stable and there is no pest population explosion.

The use of traps such as refugia plants can also catch insect pests because they are attractants or attract insects, besides that this method is also more environmentally friendly than using insecticides. Insecticides that settle on plants are not safe for human consumption.

In addition to pests, in disease control, antagonists such as fusarium fungi can be used, which can suppress their growth with trichoderma so that root rot does not occur.

2. Utilization of biological agents

Soil conditions that need to be considered today is how to fertilize the soil without destroying the physical and biological properties of the soil. One of them is by utilizing biological agents in agriculture.

The use of biological agents is usually aimed at fixing the meaning of nutrients such as N elements and P and K nutrient solvents and binding other nutrients. Biological agents are also useful as plant protectors by thickening plant skin tissue so that plants are resistant to pests and diseases.

3. Organic agriculture

Increasingly, public awareness about the environment is starting to increase, one of which is organic farming. Organic farming is an agricultural method that does not use artificial chemicals in the cultivation process. All cultivation products are natural and organic.

Organic farming has the concept of "everything taken from nature must be returned to nature to maintain balance". The concept is if the results or agricultural residues can be processed again and can be used in agriculture.

One of them is fertilization. Fertilizing plants using the remains of plant litter. The pesticides used also use natural ingredients that are toxic to insects.

4. Agroforestry

Agroforestry is the cultivation of agricultural crops coupled with forestry crops. The agroforestry method is to prevent tree cutting as forest clearing for agricultural land. Social and cultural factors also make agroforestry the most environmentally friendly concept of sustainable agriculture.

The agroforestry method can be done by using shade-tolerant plants as well as plants that can be cultivated without intensive care. In addition, the existing forest remains sustainable because of good diversification of the interrelationships with the environment.

5. Crop rotation

Crop rotation is one of the applications of sustainable farming systems. This is a method of crop rotation so that plants can adapt to the environment. By adjusting the conditions in the field, inputs on agricultural land can be minimized thereby reducing the presence of excess residue in the application of rotational cultivation.

6. Biotechnology

Agricultural biotechnology is one solution in future agriculture that utilizes the activity of a microorganism to produce products from biological processes.

Although biotechnology has a broad scope, in agriculture this method is widely developed for the purposes of production innovation. By changing the genetic makeup of plants that are susceptible to pests, it is possible to minimize the use of plant pesticides.

In addition, biotechnology that results in higher crop production also has an impact on reducing inputs such as high land cultivation. So that it is more or less able to protect the environment from excessive processing.

7. Integrated farming

Integrated agriculture is agriculture that is interconnected and has a role in each sector of production. Integration itself has a meaning, namely assimilation that creates a unity.

Integrated agriculture has links between sectors such as livestock, agriculture, food, energy, and even the environment. This agriculture is managed from upstream to downstream and back again to form a sustainable agricultural cycle.

8. Utilization of cover crops

Plants such as grasses are often interpreted as weeds and need to be eradicated in methods of farming. However, now grass plants have an important role as cover crops. Cover crops are usually plants that are more resistant to water stress conditions and are drought tolerant.

Cover crops play a role in reducing evaporation on the soil surface so that the water supply in the soil is maintained. In addition, this plant can be used as animal feed which has high nutritional value as well as an erosion prevention plant.

9. Biofuel

Agricultural residues or waste are usually discarded and not utilized. Processing of agricultural waste can be used as fuel or bioenergy with the help of bacteria and through the stages of fermentation. The fermentation process from plants can produce methane gas as bioenergy or bioethanol as biofuel.

This waste treatment is not only useful in terms of renewable energy residual wastes from agricultural products are able to reduce the impact of environmental damage due to improper processing.

10. Revegetation

The term revegetation is a term in environmental improvement by processing ex-mining land to be redeveloped into agricultural land. Revegetation is usually carried out for lands that are functionally mines that are not active and are repaired so that the soil becomes fertile again.

Repairing reclaimed ex-mining land is one of the steps in sustainable agriculture because it thinks long term about the impact of mining on the environment.

The solution from conventional agriculture is to apply concepts that are more oriented not only to production but also to environmental ecology. Plants are not only healthy and safe for consumption, but are also able to prevent damage to agro-ecosystems.

This is a series of explanations and reviews that we can share with all readers regarding examples of agricultural systems with sustainable concepts that exist in Indonesia and various parts of the methods of farming world.