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How do Electric Cars Work? Explanation from Technical Side

Hyundai Motorstudio Senayan Park 2022.05.03
How do Electric Cars Work? Explanation from Technical Side
As the need for renewable energy usage is increasingly being carried out by the community and also to meet the demands of high-tech products, many companies are releasing their newest innovative products. One of them is the Hyundai company, which releases electric cars for a better environment and fulfills human needs to try the latest advanced technology.

Especially in 2022, automotive lovers will be increasingly pampered with the latest high-tech car products. One of the proofs is the successful implementation of the GAIKINDO Indonesia International Auto Show (GIIAS) in November 2021. Hyunday itself issued one type of electric car, namely the Hyundai Ioniq 5 which was issued in 2022.

This Hyundai Ioniq 5 is a car that is carried from the Hyundai 45 production model which was actually exhibited at a global event in 2019. Using the Hyundai Electric Global Modular Platform, the Hyundai Ioniq 5 has two types, namely 2WD and AWD.

Type 2 WD uses a single electric motor at the rear which is capable of producing 216 PS and a maximum torque of 350 Nm. While, AWD has an electric motor that produces 209 PS and a maximum torque of 350 Nm at the rear and an electric motor that can grow 96 PS and a torque of 255 Nm at the front.

The introduction of the Hyundai Ioniq 5 in the market is supported by President Joko Widodo, who has signed a Presidential Decree that contains the development of electric cars in Indonesia. However, how does an electric car actually work so that it can move?

Essential Components of an Electric Car

To operate this car, the electric cars have several important components to run the motor in order to generate power and have instant torque that can be directly channeled to the wheels to move the car. Here are some of the essential components of an electric car.

1. Traction Battery

The battery is indeed the main component for storing and transmitting direct current to the inverter. Which is then flowed to drive the traction motor.

2. Traction Motor

The traction motor is an electric dynamo that functions to drive the transmission and wheels. This electric car dynamo is the main component of electric cars to support the performance of electric cars so that the car engine can spin up to tens of thousands of rpm.

3. Drive Inverter

Another important component is the drive inverter, which flows direct current (DC) from the traction battery which is supplied to the drive inverter and then converted into alternating current (AC). In the end, it is through this inverter drive that the battery is changed to drive the traction motor.

4. Controller

The controller is also the main component of an electric car that functions to regulate the electrical power that is channeled through the battery from the inverter drive to drive the traction motor. From this controller, the amount of pressure and the frequency of motor movement are controlled according to the direction of the driver

5. Auxiliary Battery dan Charger

In an electric car, there are many batteries to increase electrical power as needed in the form of an auxiliary battery and charging is done with a charger to charge it. With the large number of batteries, the machine can operate various needs of the movement of the car engine.

6. Thermal System

The thermal system in an electric car is to keep the temperature of the car stable. This system has special components that are able to cool the car engine.

How Hyundai Ioniq 5 Works

1. The Fuel Charging Stage

Basically, an electric car is a type of car that only uses battery power or a Battery Electric Vehicle to drive the car engine. To recharge the battery, car owners only need to find an external power source and can collect kinetic energy when the car owner brakes.

In an electric car, there are generally thousands of battery cells where the power is transmitted to the motor to be converted into mechanical or rotational energy. By using a 3 phase rotating magnetic field (RMF), electric cars can generate high rotations to be forwarded to the gearbox.

In this phase, the car is able to produce rotations that can reach around 18,000 rpm. The rotation speed can be checked via the motor speed sensor to see the size of the required motor rotation speed.

2. Rotating and Moving Machine Stage

In this process, a sophisticated drive inverter was invented to control the movement of the car’s gear shifts, determine the accelerator pedal of the car driver, and control acceleration. From this inverter drive there is also a process of converting DC current from the battery to AC to make the engine on the motor spin. Basically, the inverter drive is the brain of this electric car.

As the motor in the car moves, the driver can control the rotational motion of the inverter drive through the steering wheel. For example, when braking occurs, the drive inverter will control everything according to the sensors on the car that is driven by the driver.

As the car movement is being controlled by the rotation of the motor, electric cars can run after the rotational control is forwarded to the gearbox to continue the rotation of the motor to the drive shaft to each wheel. In this gearbox there is oil that can lubricate the gear so it doesn't dry out and the engine rotation can occur smoothly.

3. Driving The Car’s Wheels’ Stages

From the gearbox, the rotation of the motor on the electric car is transmitted to the differential where the rotation of the wheels is divided between the right and left wheels. Now, to make the car's wheels move to the right, left, forward, or backward, the driver can do this by turning the motor rotation through the steering wheel.

The motor engine on the car will read the sensor as instructed by the driver through the steering wheel and lever or when the driver presses the reserve (R) button. That's how electric cars move without using fuel. Super sophisticated isn't it?

Why is the Hyundai Ioniq 5 Called an Eco-Friendly Car?

The Hyundai Ioniq 5 is definitely called an environmentally friendly car because it doesn't use fossil fuels. This innovation, starting in 2022, can be used by people who want to play an active role in preserving and sustaining the earth's environment.