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Introduction to Biogas, Alternative Energy from Organic Waste

Hyundai Motorstudio Senayan Park 2022.07.11
Introduction to Biogas, Alternative Energy from Organic Waste

Do you ever know about biogas? Rarely is it known, actually biogas is alternative energy source from organic waste fermentation. For example, cow dung or livestock manure, household waste, and human waste.

Biogas is currently being developed in many countries, even in remote areas throughout the archipelago. Generally, bio gas known as gobar gas or biomethane will be used as an environmentally friendly source of electrical energy.

If electricity generation is generally produced from coal energy, fossil fuel energy, or fuel oil, then biomethane does not damage the environment at all. Interested in learning the meaning of biogas as alternative energy sources ? Check out the following review, come on!

What is Biogas?

Bio gas is produced from the process of decomposition of organic waste by bacteria in an environment without oxygen, otherwise known as the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion process will recycle organic waste and turn it into bio gas. Basically, the process of anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in the wild.

However, this process can be maximized, controlled, and accommodated using advanced anaerobic digester technology or equipment.

Biogas Composition

The composition of bio gas can vary according to the organic waste used. However, they generally contain methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide and oxygen.

In general, the composition of bio gas is as follows:

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In addition to these gases, there are small amounts of water vapor and other gaseous contaminants. Among them:

  • Sulfur / Sulfur compounds. If there are elements of sulfur oxide and sulfuric acid, it can be corrosive and harmful to the environment.
  • Ammonia. If there is ammonia in the bio gas, it means that combustion produces toxic nitrogen oxides.
  • Siloxane. Siloxane is a silicon compound. Sometimes the siloxane present in the combustion produces silicon oxide. Silicon oxide is not good for health.

Biogas Production Work System

The wastes that are most easily broken down by a digester include: food waste, oil, and fat. Meanwhile, livestock waste tends to be more difficult. However, by mixing several types of waste into the digester , the results of bio gas will be better.

In order for the digester to function optimally to decompose waste more quickly, it is usually set in a temperature range between 30 to 38 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, after producing bio gas, the system will distribute biogas into alternative energy sources of electricity and heat to people's homes or the industrial sector.

Sources of heat and electricity from bio gas can also be used to power engines, turn turbines, and other fuels. Bio gas can also be upgraded to biomethane, or, better known as renewable natural gas .

In its use, biomethane will be fed into natural gas pipelines or used as vehicle fuel.

Uses of Biogas

On a small scale, bio gas can be used as fuel gas, electricity, heat, and transportation. One example is Sweden, which uses bio gas as fuel for buses, trains and cars.

The biogas in Sweden is produced mainly from landfills and sewage treatment plants.

Meanwhile, some other uses of biogas are as follows:

  • Bio gas is generally used in rural areas as cooking gas.
  • Can be used as an alternative source of electrical energy.
  • Bio gas can be used for water heating, home heating, etc.
  • Can replace fossil fuels for environmentally friendly vehicle fuels.
  • Bio gas can replace carbon dioxide in CHP ( Combined Heat and Power ) plants that produce heat and energy.
  • Bio gas can be used in the transportation sector. Like Amanda's bio gas train in Sweden.
  • Biogas production produces solid and dry by-products which are very useful as manure.
  • Bio gas is used in many countries for the purposes of Public Street Lighting.
  • Bio gas can also be used as a component of hydrogen fuel.

Advantages of Biogas

A number of advantages of bio gas have been felt in the transportation and industrial sectors as a fuel. There are two main advantages of biogas. Among them:

1. Natural and Environmentally Friendly

Unlike other renewable energy sources, the bio gas production process is natural and does not require fossil energy. In addition, because trees and plants will continue to grow, the raw materials used in biogas plants can be renewed.

Animal and human waste, food scraps, and agricultural waste, as well as organic waste are all raw materials that are available cheaply and in abundance, making it a solution sustainable lifestyle .

2. Improve Water Quality

Water is the source of life. If the Final Disposal Site (TPA) of garbage continues to build up, it can contaminate groundwater supplies . In this case, bio gas plays a very important role in improving water quality. The anaerobic digestion process also inactivates germs and parasites, making it an efficient way to reduce the spread of waterborne germs, bacteria and parasites.

Even so, in places with bio gas generating facilities. Local residents can further increase awareness of environmental hygiene and waste management. So that, healthier environment .

Disadvantages of Biogas

In addition to the advantages described above, bio gas also has disadvantages, including:

1. Depends on the weather

Like other renewable energy sources (eg solar, wind), bio gas production is also affected by weather. The optimal temperature for bacteria to digest waste is around 37°C.

In cold climates, the digester requires heat energy whose function is to maintain a constant supply of bio gas.

2. Not Suitable in Dense Cities

Another weakness of bio gas is that industrial bio gas generating facilities can function optimally if the raw materials for organic waste are abundantly available. Therefore, bio gas plants are more suitable to be located in rural areas or suburbs, not in the middle of dense urban areas.

And there you got it! That was some information about biogas. Hopefully the information above can help increase your insight and who knows you might be interested in trying to make bio gas at home as an alternative energy.


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